A very early style of Roman architecture, the “opus quadratum” dates back onesto the time of the ancient Etruscans, before the beginning of the Roman Republic
Like any other concrete, Roman concrete consists of aggregate and mortar. A binder, such as gypsum, was used. What other type of binder was also used? Be careful, though. You don’t want puro put this sopra your mojito!
After being mixed with ciotola, the mortar, which consisted of gypsum or lime, would harden over time. In some areas pozzolana, also called pit sand, was used.
It was common sopra ancient times for prominent Romans preciso construct tombs along the Appian Way. The original covering of the tomb in the picture has been removed esatto esibizione the bare concrete.
Placed at verso forty-five degree angle, the diamond-shaped bricks were normally made of tuff or tufa, which is a rock made from consolidated volcanic ash pushed out during per volcanic eruption. “Opus” (term for a piece of art) and “reticulatum” (net-like), translates onesto net-work; the design was named because the Romans believed the brickwork resembled a net. This design was prevalent per the first century BC.
Latin for “brickwork”, “opus latericium” was the design used during the imperial evo mediante Rome. Per Roman architect, Vitruvius, used this term for structures that were built with unfired bricks.
The example of “opus reticulatum” per the picture comes from per wall con the city of Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Mt
Verso new Appian Way was constructed mediante 1784 that was parallel with the old one; now the older section of road that dates back puro Roman times is called the “Cammino Appia Antic”. The building is an example of a tomb, built along the old stretch of the road, which dates back onesto ancient Rome.
Generally, this decorative pattern was used per the construction of pavement, but it was also used as verso pattern on walls and as firebacks per hearths. This design was also used during the Middle Ages, as evidenced at Usk Castle durante Wales, and into the Renaissance. Filippo Brunelleschi used this pattern in constructing the dome of the Cathedral positivesingles collegamento of Florence.
Believed sicuro be the world’s oldest shopping mall, Trajan’s Market was constructed per the Roman Forum con the 100s AD. The multi-level structure included shops, offices, and even verso library! The herringbone pattern was used onesto pave the floor of the market.
One of the earliest Roman architectural styles, “opus incertum” first utilized irregularly-shaped rocks and careful placement esatto make the concrete work immagine as plain as possible. Later the amount of concrete used was reduced, and more uniform stones were selected. This made the exterior immagine even plainer.
Con ancient times the Italian town of Terracina was strategically located for the defense of the city of Rome. The summit of the city has per massive terrace, on which stood The Temple of Jupiter Anxur. Built during the first century BC, the temple was dedicated esatto Jupiter as verso young man.
Also called “opus compositum”, “opus mixtum”, or “mixed rete informatica”, combines many different styles. Per very popular method of brickwork used during the time of Emperor Hadrian, it usually mixes “opus reticulatum” and “opus latericium” or “opus vittatum” and “opus testaceum”.
The design sopra the picture is from the remains of per Roman amphitheatre mediante Naples. Ampitheatres were oval-shaped and generally used for gladiator fights, executions, or animals fights.
“Opus sectile” was per technique used on floors or walls that employed the use of materials that were cut and inlaid. Commonly used materials included glass, marble and mother of pearl. The inlaid pieces used for “opus sectile” are much larger than the ones used for the technique called “tessellated mosaic”. Other civilizations, such as Egypt, also used this technique.
The design of the “opus sectile” was found on the floor of the Basilica of Junius Bassus. Built on the Esquiline Hill, the basilica is considered onesto be the source of some of the best examples of this type of rete di emittenti.
The “opus africanum” technique was also used con Carthaginian architecture, and is common mediante North Africa. It has also been found on buildings per Sicily and southern Italy.
Per the picture, the metroon, any building dedicated to per mother goddess, was built for Cybele, who was known con Rome as the “Magna Mater”. The Romans officially adopted her cult after much colloque during the Second Punic War, which was fought against Carthage con Africa. Cybele became Rome’s “Great Mother” until Christianity overtook the pagan religion.
At that time mortar was not used and the blocks were uneven. The Greeks altered the “Etruscan Way”, using stretchers, or long blocks and headers, which turned the blocks width-wise. Once the Romans invented concrete, walls per this style were common.
Sopra architecture, having verso coffered dome, which is also called per lacunar ceiling, meant that it was made of sunken panels, done in some type of geometric shape. The panels durante the Pantheon dome are square. This method was employed to try and lighten some of the weight that the dome had puro carry, while keeping the integrity of the framework.
First commissioned during the reign of Augustus, and destroyed by fire mediante 80 AD, the Pantheon was rebuilt mediante 126 AD during the reign of Hadrian. As its name implies, the Pantheon was built as a temple for all the gods. Since Roman times it has been used as per Christian church as well as verso tomb.